Pacific Northwest
Meteorological References

Clifford Mass, Mark MacIver
Department of Atmospheric Sciences,
University of Washington
September 1996

The attached is an attempt to list the various papers and reports on Pacific Northwest meteorology. Please let me know of any missing papers/reports that might be appropriate for inclusion.

Alsop, T.J., 1989: The natural seasons of western Oregon and Washington. Journal of Atmospheric Science. 41, 3568-3583.

Anderson, R.W. 1979: Sudden gale hits Pacific Northwest tuna fleet. Mariners Weather Log, Wash., D.C.,23, 86-89.

Ayer, H. 1958: A sample of single theodolite wind errors in the Coast Range of Oregon. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 39, 279-281.

Ayer, S., and D. Coparanis, 1968: Synoptic meteorology of foehn winds in Oregon and Washington. U.S. Weather Bureau, Portland, OR.

Ayotte, K., 1986: The development and application of a one-level mesoscale atmospheric model over the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. The University of British Columbia.

Baker, R., E. Wendell Hewson, N. G. Butler, and E. J. Warchol 1978: Wind power potential in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 17, 1814-1825.

Banta, R. M., L. D. Olivier, C. J. Zhu, I. G. McKendry, and D. Steyn, 1995: Clear night time down-valley flows near Vancouver, BC. Seventh Conference on Mountain Meteorology, 386-390.

Battelle-Pacific Northwest Labs. 1972: The Hanford Storm of January 11, 1972. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland Washington.

Battisti, D.S. and B.M. Hickey 1984: Application of remote, wind-forced coastal-trapped wave theory to the Oregon and Washington coasts. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 14, 887-903. May 1984.

Bauck, B. H., 1992: An unusually strong gravity wave over western Washington. Weather and Forecasting, 7, 389-397.

Beers, F.D. 1963: Upper-tropospheric cyclones along the U.S. west coast in summer. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Bennet, R., and T. Larson, and Shi-Zoom Wang, 1989: A survey of airborne particulate matter in King, Kitsap, Pierce, and Snohomish Counties during the Winter of 1988-1989. University Of Washington - Department Of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering and Science.

Beal, H.T. , 1985: Outflow Winds from Northern B.C. Mainland Outlets. Unpublished manuscript.

Beamer, C.C., 1944: Notes on fog and stratus forecasting at Boeing Field. Pan American Meteorology Department, Seattle Washington. Mimeographed.

Bond, N. A. and Fleagle, R.G. 1988: Pre-frontal and post-frontal boundary layer processes over the ocean. Monthly Weather Review, 116, 1257-

Bond, N., and C. Mass, and J. Overland, 1996: Coastally trapped southerly transitions along the U.S. West Coast during the warm season. Part I: Climatology and temporal evolution. Monthly Weather Review, 124, 430-445.

Brown, B.G., R.W. Katz and A.H. Murphy 1985: Exploratory analysis of precipitation events with implications for stochastic modeling. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology. 24, 57-67.

Buehner, T., 1992: The Brookings Effect. Western Region Technical Attachment, 36.

Buettner, K., 1967: Valley wind, sea breeze, and mass fire: Three cases of quasi-stationary airflow. Proc. Symposium On Mountain Met., 26 June 1967.

Buettner, K., and N. Thyer, 1959: Final Report AF Contract 19(604)-2289 On valley and mountain winds. Department of Meteorology and Climatology, University of Washington, AFCRC-TR-59-283 (see also Thyer,N.).

Buettner, K., and N. Thyer, 1962: Valley winds in Mt. Rainier National Park. Weatherwise, 15.

Buettner, K., 1963: Orographic Deformation of Wind Flow - Final Report. Prepared for U.S. Army Electronics Research and Development Laboratory. Fort Monmouth, NJ.

Buettner, K., and N. Thyer, 1965: Valley winds in the Mount Rainier area. Archiv fuer Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie, Series B, Band 14, 125-147

Bundy, V. C., 1969: The Puget Sound convergence zone. Unpublished internal document. [Available from the National Weather Service Forecast Office, Seattle]

Bundy, V. C., 1971: Severe southerly wind storms in Western Washington. Unpublished paper, WSFO, Seattle.

Burdwell, G.B. 1972: Convergence along a mountainous coast and the coastal jet. Excerpts prepared for presentation at Fourth Conference on Weather Forecasting and Analysis May 1-4, 1972, Portland, Oregon. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Burrows, William R., Benjamin, Mario. and et al. 1995: CART decision-tree statistical analysis and prediction of summer season maximum surface ozone for the Vancouver,

Montreal, and Atlantic regions of Canada. (classification and regression trees). Journal of Applied Meteorology, 34, 1848.

Cameron, D. C. and A. B. Carpenter, 1931: Destructive easterly gales in the Columbia River Gorge. Monthly Weather Review, 64, 264-267.

Cameron, D. C., 1931 : Easterly gales in the Columbia River Gorge during the winter of 1930-1931--some of their causes and effects. Monthly Weather Review, 59, 411-413.

Cannon, G. A., R.K. Reed and P.E. Pullen 1985: Comparison of El Nino events off the Pacific

Northwest. Washington. Univ., College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences, Washington Sea Grant Program, Seattle, 1985, 75-84. Refs. WSG-WO 85-3.

Capell, John C. 1953: Mechanics of the California-Oregon Heat Low. Weather Bureau Fire Weather Conference, March 4, 1953, Portland Oregon, 9p.

Carpenter, A.B. 1941: A study of pre-warm frontal fog at Portland. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 22, 47-51.

Cayan, D.R. , and D.H. Peterson 1989: The influence of North Pacific atmospheric circulation on the streamflow in the west. Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas. Geophysical Monograph 55 Washington D.C. American Geophysical Union. 337-397.

Cayan, D., and Redmond, K., 1993: ENSO influences on atmospheric circulation and precipitation in the Western United States. Proc. 10th Ann. Pac. Climate (PACLIM) Workshop Apr 4-7 1993, Cal. Dept. Water Res., Interagency Ecological Studies Prog. Tech. Rept. 36.

Cheesman, G.E. 1974: Analysis of freeze-free periods in British Columbia. Atmosphere-Ocean, 17, 44.

Chien, F.-C., and C. Mass, 1994: A numerical study of the interactions between frontal systems and coastal mountains. The fourth PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model Users' Workshop. MMM division, NCAR. 78-82.

Chien, F.-C., and C. Mass, 1996: Interaction of a warm-season frontal system and the coastal mountains of the U.S., Part I: pre-frontal onshore push, coastal ridging, and along-shore southerlies. Accepted to Monthly Weather Review.

Chien, F.-C., and C. Mass, 1996: Interaction of a warm-season frontal system and the coastal mountains of the U.S., Part II: the Puget Sound convergence zone. Accepted to Monthly Weather Review.

Christensen, R. A. and R.F. Eilbert 1985: Seasonal precipitation forecasting with a 6-7 month

lead time in the Pacific Northwest using an information theoretic model. Monthly Weather Review, 113, 502-18.

Church, P.E., 1938: Surface details of a warm front in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 19, 400-402.

Church, P.E. and T.E. Stephens, 1941: Influence of The Cascade and Rocky Mountains on the temperature during westward spread of polar air. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 22 , 25-30.

Church, P., 1962: Seattle: A spectacular and clean air city, Weatherwise, 15

Church, P.E., 1974: Some precipitation characteristics of Seattle. Weatherwise , 27, 244-251.

Cleugh, H.A. and Oke, T.R., 1986: Suburban-rural energy balance comparisons in summer for Vancouver, B.C.. Boundary Layer Meteorology. In Press.

Coakley, S. M. 1979: Climate variability in the Pacific Northwest and its effect on stripe rust disease of winter wheat. Climatic Change, 2, 33-51.

Cokelet, E. D., 1992: Axial and cross axial winter winds over Puget Sound. Monthly Weather Review, 120, 821-834.

Colle, B. A. and C. F. Mass, 1996: An observational and modeling study of the interaction of low-level southwesterly flow with the Olympic Mountains during COAST IOP4. Accepted in Monthly Weather Review, 124, 2152-2175.

Coligado, M. , 1980: May-September Precipitation, Victoria B.C.. Map produced by Air Management, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria.

Conway, H. and C.F. Raymond, 1988: Predictions of snow avalanches in maritime climates. Olympia WA. Washington State Department of Transportation. Report on research project GC8286, Task 8.

Coparanis, D. John, 1985: Meteorological bombs as they affect Oregon. Unpublished paper, WFSO Portland.

Cramer, O., 1957: Frequency of dry east winds over Northwest Oregon and Southwest Washington. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Portland, OR.

Cramer, O. and R.E. Lynott, 1970: Mesoscale analysis of a heat wave in western Oregon. Journal Appl. Meteorology, 9, 740-759.

Cramer, O., 1973: Mesoscale weather in the Pacific Northwest: A summer case study. Monthly Weather Review, 101, 13-23.

Critchfield, H., 1981: Guide to climatic information - Washington State. Office of the State Climatologist, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA.

Critchfield, H., 1978: Sunshine and solar radiation in Washington State. Office of the State Climatologist, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA.

Cross, C., 1950: Slope and valley winds in the Columbia river valley. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 31, 79-84.

Danard, M. B. 1977: A simple model for mesoscale effects of topography on surface winds. Monthly Weather Review, 105, 572-581.

Decker, Fred W. 1960: The Weather of Oregon. Oregon State University. Science Series No. 2.

DeHarpporte, D. 1983: Northwest, north central, and Alaska wind atlas. : N.Y., Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983. 122 p.

Dickey, W. 1964: Objective evaluation of NMC prognostic charts in terms of probability of measurable precipitation in the Puget Sound region (winter months). On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Dightman, R.A. 1941: Fog and low stratus at Spokane Wa. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 22, 309-314.

Donaldson, W.R. 1969: The influence of air pollution on the long range visibility at the Seattle-Tacoma Airport. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Doran, J.C. and Skyllingstad, E.D. 1992: Multiple-scale terrain forcing of local wind fields. Monthly Weather Review,120, 817-825.

Doran, J. C. and S. Zhong, 1994: Regional drainage flows in the Pacific Northwest. Monthly Weather Review, 122, 1158-1167.

Dorman, C.E. and Winant, C.D. 1995: Buoy observations of the atmosphere along the west coast

of the United States, 1981-1990. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 16029-44.

Dunkley, R., 1990: Stratus surges along the British Columbia coast: The result of a mesoscale process. Third AES Workshop on Operational Meteorology, Montreal Quebec., 2-4 May 1990, Atmospheric Environment Service.

Edmonds, R. L. and F. A. Basabe, 1989: Ozone concentrations above a Douglas-fir forest-canopy western Washington, U.S.A. Atmospheric Environment, 23, 625-629.

Ellis, P.T. 1951: Forecasting strong surface winds at Seattle. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Erickson, K.T., 1947: Forecasting the break in warm and fair weather at Seattle. U.S. Weather Bureau, Seattle, Washington. (Mimeographed).

Evenson, E.C., Johns, R.H.: Some climatological and synoptic aspects of severe weather development in the Northwestern United States. National Weather Digest. 34-50.

Faulkner, D.A., 1980: Mesoscale observations of an outflow wind over the Southern Strait of Georgia. Pacific Region Technical Note 80-022, A.E.S., Vancover B.C. , 6

Faulkner, D. A 1978: On the incidence of radiation and advection fog at Vancouver International Airport.

Atmospheric Environment. Technical Memorandum, TEC 862, Nov. 17, 1978. 10 p.

Ferber, G. K. 1989: Mesoscale sea-level pressure patterns around the Olympic Peninsula. M.S. Thesis, University of Washington, 93

Ferber, G. K. and C. F. Mass, C., 1990: Surface pressure perturbations produced by an isolated mesoscale topographic barrier. Part II: Influence on regional circulations. Monthly Weather Review, 118, 2597-2606.

Ferber, G., C. Mass, G. Lackmann and M.W. Patnoe, 1993: Snowstorms over the Puget Sound lowlands. Wea. Forecast, 8, 481-504.

Ferguson, S., and M. Moore, and R. Marriott, and P. Speers-Hayes, 1990: Avalanche weather forecasting at the Northwest Avalanche Center, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.. Journal of Glaciology, 36, 57-66.

Finnigan, T.D., 1993: Microbarograph pressure recordings from an extreme gap wind event in Howe Sound, BC. in December ,1992. Data report, University of British Columbia.

Finnigan, T., and J. Vine, and P. Jackson, and S. Allen, and G. Lawrence, and D. Steyn, 1994: Hydraulic physical modeling and observations of a severe gap wind. Monthly Weather Review, 122, 2677-2687.

Fox, T.D. 1973: Avalanches and synoptic weather situations in the Washington Cascades in 1971-72 winter. Master's thesis, University of Washington, Seattle Wa.

Gerlach, A., 1943: Precipitation of Western Washington. Thesis, UW.

Gimmestad, C. , 1993: A statistical forecasting method for fog at Olympia, Washington. Western Region Technical Attachment. No. 93-15. WSFO Seattle, Wa.

Givati, R., R.G. Flocchini and G. Robert 1996: Modeling sulfur dioxide concentrations in Mt.

Rainier area during PREVENT. Atmospheric Environment, 30, 255-67.

Gladwell, John S., 1967: A statistical evaluation of the Skagit River cloud seeding program, 1963-1964. Pullman, Wash., State of Washington Water Research Center.

Graham, N.E., 1994: Decadal-scale climate variability in the tropical and North Pacific during the 1970s and 1980s: Observations and model results. Climate Dynamics, 10, 135-162.

Hales,J. E. Jr. 1994: The Vancouver WA tornado on April 5,1972 as a benchmark for west coast significant tornado episodes. Preprints 6th Conference on Mesoscale Processes ,Portland Oregan, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 134-137.

Halladay, N., (USN Met. Officer), 1970: United States Navy Local Area Weather Forecaster's Handbook.

Halladay,N., 1970: Whidbey Island Forecasters Handbook. NAV WEA SERV COM INST 3140.2 U.S. Naval Air Station, Oak Harbor, Washington Washington.

Hamilton, K. and W.J. Emery 1985: Regional atmospheric forcing of interannual surface temperature and sea level variability in the Northeast Pacific. El Nino north: Nino effects in the eastern subarctic Pacific Ocean, Seattle, WA., Univ. of WA., College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences, Washington Sea Grant Program, 1985, p. 22-30. Refs. (WSG-WO 85-3)

Harper, P. 1963: Report on October 12 Wind Storm. U.S. Dept. Interior, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland Oregon. Mimeographed.

Harr, R., and T. Cundy, 1990: The November floods in Western Washington, U.S.A.. Internationales Symposium INTERPRAEVENT 1992 - Bern, Tagungspublikation, 1, 229-239.

Harris, R., 1954: The surface winds over Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan De Fuca and their oceanographic effects. Master of Science Thesis. University of Washington 1954.

Hay, J. E. and T.R. Oke , 1976: The Climate of Vancouver. B.C. Geographical Series, No. 23, Tantalus Research Ltd. Vancouver, 48

Hawkins, J.D 1979: Atmospheric structural variations that result in upwelling off Oregon. Florida. State Univ., Dept. of Meteorology, Tallahassee, Feb., 1979. 72 p. Refs., figs. (FSU-MET-STU 79-1; CUEA Technical Report No. 52).

Hermann, J., and B. Hickey, 1990: Orographically trapped coastal wind events in the Pacific Northwest and their oceanic response. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, 169-193.

Hermann, A.J., B. Hickey, C. Mass, and M. Albright, 1990: Coastally trapped atmospheric gravity currents in the Pacific Northwest and their oceanic response. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, 13169-13193.

Hewson, E., 1975: Generation of power from the wind. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 56, 660-675.

Hewson, E. and Baker R.W., 1978: Windpower - Network of wind power over the Pacific Northwest. Report No. BPA 77-2, Oregon State University, Corvalis, Oregon.

Hewson, E., Baker R.W. , Barber, D.A., and Peterson, B., 1978: Network of wind power over the Pacific Northwest - Executive Summary. Report No. BPA 78-3, Oregon State University, Corvalis, Oregon.

Hibbard, C. 1964: Wind behavior in the coastal section of Southwest Washington. U.S. Department of Commerce Weather Bureau Fire Weather Office Olympia, Washington.

Hirschberg, Paul A., Lind, Richard J., Bolduc, Steven J. and Elsberry, Russell L. 1995: The West Coast Picket Fence Experiment during STORM-FEST. (Stormscale Operational and Research Meteorology-Fronts Experiment Systems Test). Bulletin-of-the-American-Meteorological- Society, 76, 1741.

Hobbs, P. V., L. R. Radke, M. W. Elgroth , and D. A. Hegg, 1981: Airborne studies of the volcanic eruptions of Mount St. Helens. Science, 211, 816-818.

Hobbs, P.V., R.A. Houze Jr., and T.J. Matejka 1975: The dynamical microphysical structure of an occluded frontal system and its modification by orography. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 32, 1542-1562.

Hobbs, P.V. and T.J. Matejka, P.H. et al, 1980: The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in mid-latitude cyclones, I: A case study of a cold front. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 37, 568-596.

Holbrook, J.R., Muench, R.D. and G.A. Cannon 1980: Seasonal variations of low-frequency atmospheric forcing in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Fjord Oceanography. 1980. Plenum Pub. NY,NY.

Holbrook, J. R. and D. Halpern, 1978: Variability of near-surface currents and winds in the western Strait of Juan de Fuca. Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Washington. Unpublished manuscript.

Holcomb, J. 1979: Influence of cloudiness on summertime temperatures in the Eastern Washington Fire Weather District. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. National Weather Service, Salt Lake City, Utah Technical Memorandum (NOAA TM NWS WR-140),

April, 1979.

Hooker, G. : Verification of the (Edgar) Johnson temperature forecast aid. Unpublished.

Huse, T., 1994: Case study analysis regarding local acceleration of winds along the Washington Coast. Western Region Technical Attachment, No.94-90.

Huse, T. : Washington State Tornadoes. Unpublished manuscript available from Seattle NWS office.

Jackson, B., 1993: Dealing with the thermal trough. Western Regional Attachment , No. 83-21, National Weather Service, 6

Jackson, P. : Numerical modeling of outflow wind through the Fraser Valley of Southwestern British Columbia -- An Interim Report.

Jackson, P., and D. Steyn, 1992: The weather and climates of Howe Sound. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1789, 1-16.

Jackson, P. 1993: Gap winds in a fjord: Howe Sound, British Columbia. University of British Columbia, Ph. D. thesis.

Jackson, P., and D. Steyn, 1994: Gap winds in a fjord. Part I: Observations and numerical simulation. Monthly Weather Review , 122, 2645-2665.

Jackson, P., and D. Steyn, 1994: Gap winds in a fjord. Part II: Hydraulic analog. Monthly Weather Review, 122, 2668-2667.

Johnson, A. and J. J. O'Brien, 1973: A study of an Oregon sea breeze event. Journal of Applied Meteorology , 12, 1267-1283.

Johnson, EA., Fryer, GI. and Heathcott-MJ. 1990: The influence of man and climate on frequency of fire in the interior wet belt forest, British Columbia. Journal-of-Ecology, 78, 403.

Johnson, E.G., 1972: An aid for forecasting summer maximum temperatures at Seattle, Washington. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSWR81, 16

Kalanda, B. D., 1979: Suburban evaporation estimates in Vancouver, B.C. Thesis. University Of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Khalil, A.K., 1986: Olympic-Lacey Areosol Study Progress Report #3,report submitted to Washington State Department of Ecology and Olympia Air Pollution Control Authority. September, 1986.

Kinzebach, R.M. 1951: A study of advection of coastal stratus over western Washington. McChord AFB, Washington. Mimeographed.

Kinzebach, R.M. 1963: An objective method of forecasting below minimum visibilities at McChord AFB during the fall and winter months. Detachment 4, 35th Weather Squadron McChord AFB, Washington. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Kinzebach, R. M., 1955: An objective method of forecasting the occurrence of low clouds in the McChord-Seattle area during the summer months. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 36, 104-108.

Kinzebach, R.M. : A study of the advection of coastal stratus over western Washington. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Kreitzberg, C.W. 1961: Detailed analyses of selected Pacific storms based on continuous radar records and short-interval serial ascents. University of Washington Department of Meteorology and Climatology. Contract No. AF19(604)-5192. Project No. 8641, Task No. 86414, Technical Report No. 4.

Koehler, Leighton, 1945: Fog and stratus studies for Boeing Field, Seattle Washington. Northwest Airlines Met. Dept. Mimeographed. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Lackman, Gary M. 1989: Atmospheric structure and momentum balance during a gap wind event in Sheilikof Strait, Alaska. Monthly Weather Review, 117, 1817-1833.

Larson, T., and D Kalman, and Shi-Zoom Wang, and G. Nothstein, 1988: Urban air toxics mitigation study, Phase I (includes mobile monitoring of airborne particulate matter). Dept. Civ. Eng. # Dept. Env. Health, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195.

Larson, T.V. et. al., 1988: Urban Air Toxics Mitigation Study: Phase I, report submitted to Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency. September 30, 1988.

Leung, L. Ruby, and Ghan, Steven J. 1995: A subgrid parameterization of orographic precipitation. To appear in Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 52, 95-118.

Lilly, K., 1983: Marine weather of Western Washington. Star Path, Seattle, WA, 150

Lindquist, Harold D., 1960: Notes on forecasting dewpoint temperature and relative humidity at high level stations in Washington. March 1960. U.S. Weather Bureau. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. Mimeographed. pp14.

Lindquist, Harold D. 1953: A study of summertime stratus and fog in western Washington. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Lowry, W.P. The Sea Breeze of Northwest Oregon, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State University.

Lynott, R. E. and O. P. Cramer, 1966: Detailed analysis of the 1962 Columbus Day windstorm in Oregon and Washington. Monthly Weather Review, 94, 105-117.

Martin, F.L., 1944: The problem of Lake Washington stratus at Boeing Field. Northwest Airlines Met. Dept. Seattle, Washington. Mimeographed.

Marriot, R.T., M.B. Moore, 1981: Northwest Avalanche forecasting program. Proceedings of Avalanche Workshop. 3-5 November 1980, Vancover Ottawa, National Research Council of Canada. Asso. Committe on Geotechnical Research, 190-204. (Technical Memorandum 133.)

Mass. C. 1988: Comments on "The Dynamics of Coastally Trapped Mesoscale

Ridges in the Lower Atmosphere." (response to C.J.C. Reason and D.G. Steyn, Monthly Weather Review, vol. 116, 1988, p. 804). Journal-of-the-Atmospheric-Sciences, 52, 2313.

Mass, C., 1987: The "banana belt" of the southern Oregon coast. Weather Forecasting, 2, 187-198.

Mass, C., 1980: The Puget Sound convergence zone. Weatherwise, 33, 272-274.

Mass, C., 1995: The relative importance of synoptic-scale forcing versus marine layer dynamics along the West Coast of North America. Accepted in Journal of The Atmospheric Science, 52, 446-441.

Mass, C., 1981: Topographically forced convergence in western Washington State. Monthly WeatherReview, 109, 1335-1347.

Mass, C., 1982: The topographically forced diurnal circulations of western Washington State and their influence on precipitation. Monthly Weather Review, 110, 170-183.

Mass, C., and M. Albright, 1987: Coastal southerlies and alongshore surges of the west coast of North America: Evidence of mesoscale topographically trapped response to synoptic forcing. Monthly Weather Review, 115, 1707-1738.

Mass, C., and M. Albright, 1988: Reply to the comment of C. Dorman on "Coastal southerlies and along shore surges of the West Coast of North America." Monthly Weather Review, 116, 2407-2410.

Mass, C., and M. Albright, 1985: A severe windstorm in the lee of the Cascade mountains of Washington State. Monthly Weather Review, 113, 1261-1281.

Mass, C., and M. Albright and D.J. Brees, 1986: The onshore surge of maritime air into the Pacific Northwest: A coastal region of complex terrain. Monthly Weather Review, 114, 2602-2627.

Mass, C., and N. Bond, 1996: Coastally trapped wind reversals along the U.S. West Coast during the warm season: Part II, Synoptic evolution. Monthly Weather Review, 124, 446-461.

Mass, C., and S. Businger, and M. Albright, and Z. Tucker, 1995: A windstorm in the lee of a gap in a coastal mountain barrier. Monthly Weather Review, 123, 315-331.

Mass, C., and D. Dempsey, 1985: A simple one-level mesoscale model for diagnosing surface winds in mountainous and coastal regions. Monthly Weather Review, 113, 1211-1227.

Mass, C., and D. Dempsey, 1985: A topographically forced convergence line in the lee of the Olympic Mountains. Monthly Weather Review, 113, 659-663.

Mass, C., and G. Ferber, 1990: Surface pressure perturbations produced by an isolated mesoscale topographic barrier, Part I: General characteristics and dynamics. Monthly Weather Review, 118, 2579-2596.

Mass, C. and A. Robock 1982: The short-term influence of the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption on surface temperature in the Northwest United States. Monthly Weather Review. 110, 614-22.

Maunder, W.J. 1968: Synoptic weather patterns in the Pacific Northwest. Northwest Science, 42, 80-88

Mc Bean, G.A. and S. Nikleva 1986: Composition of snow in the pacific coastal mountains. Atmospheric Environment, 20, 1161-4.

McBean, G.A. and R.E. Stewart, 1991: Structure of a frontal system over the northeast Pacific Ocean. Monthly Weather Review , 119, 997-1013.

McFarland, M.W., 1988: Meteorological conditions associated with high ozone concentrations in western Washington State. National Weather Service internal note.

McGurik, J.P. , 1982: A century of precipitation variability along the Pacific coast of North America and its inpact, Climate Change, 4, 41-56.

McKendry, Ian G. 1994: Synoptic circulation and summertime ground-level ozone concentrations at Vancouver, British Columbia. Journal-of-Applied-Meteorology, 3, 627.

McKendry, I.G. and D.G. Steyn, 1986 : Application of a 3-D measoscale model to windfield prediction in the Lower Fraser Valley, B.C. Presented to the 20Th Annual Congress of the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society , Regina.

McIntire, D. 1952: A technique for wind analysis and forecasting as applied to Victoria, British Columbia. Quart. J. Royal Met. Soc., 247-254.

Meredith, E.C. 1945: Study of the weather situation of February 28-March 1, 1945. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Meredith, E. C., 1955: Statistical study of strong surface winds in the Seattle-Tacoma area. Unpublished paper, USAF, Seattle.

Miller, G. 1986: Oregon Coast storm of July 4, 1986. Western Region Technical Attachment No. 86-28. On file at WSFO Seattle Wa.

Mizzi, A.P. and R.A. Pielke 1984: A numerical study of the mesoscale atmospheric circulation observed during a coastal upwelling event on 23 August 1972. I. Sensitivity studies.

Monthly Weather Review, 112, 76-90.

Moore, M. B., 1975: Weather and snowpack developments associated with avalanching in the Washington Cascades. MS Thesis. U of W.

Morris, G. J., 1986: Climate atlas of western Washington. Lopez Island, WA.

Morris, V., 1968: A study of mesoscale mountain barrier effects in Western Washington and Vancouver Island. Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, UW, unpublished.

Myers, R.A., 1966 Lee troughing west of Vancouver Island. Cir-4410, Tec-608, Department of Transport-Meteorological Branch, 5

NEA, Inc., 1985: Seattle-Tacoma Aerosol Characterization Study (STACS), prepared by the Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency in Fulfillment of EPA Project No. 82.10

Nikleva, S. 1968: The effect of instability on the orographic precipitation over Vancouver Island. Technical Memoranda Department of Transport, Meteorological Branch Canada. Tec 698 Nov. 29, 1968.

Nishimoto, F. S. 1975: Maximum Temperature Aid for Brookings, Oregon. Local Study . National Weather Service, Portland Oregon, 5

Oke, T.R and J.H. McCaughey 1983: Suburban-rural energy balance comparisons for Vancouver, BC: an extreme case ? Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 26, 337-54.

Overland, J., 1984: Scale analysis of marine winds in straits and along mountainous coasts. Monthly Weather Review, 112, 2532-2536.

Overland, J.E. and N.A Bond 1995: Observations and scale analysis of coastal wind jets.

Monthly Weather Review, 123, 2934-41.

Overland, J., and M. Hitchman, and Y. J. Han, 1979: A regional surface wind model for mountainous coastal areas. NOAA Tech. Report ERL 407-PMEL 32, U.S. Dept. of Commerce.

Overland, J. E. and B. A. Walter, Jr., 1981: Gap winds in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Monthly Weather Review, 109, 2221-2233.

Overland, J., and B. Walter, 1981 Forecasting the Pacific Northwest winds. Castoff. April 1981, 10-13

Overland, J., and B. Walter, 1983: Marine weather of the inland waters of Western Washington. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL PMEL-44.

Pacific Northwest River Basin Commission 1968: Climatological Handbook: Columbia Basin States. 3, part A, Meteorology Committe, June.

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