**Download and Analysis of
Mars-Based Temperature Data**

**How Does Near-Surface Temperature Change with
Height on Mars?
Claris Works 4.0 (Macintosh) Version**

**Purpose**: to "download" and import data into Claris Works
4.0 so you may analyze it for patterns and significance using the *Make
Chart* option.

**Procedure**: Print this worksheet to follow along and work with
a partner (if possible). Similar procedures are available for those using
Microsoft Excel 4.0 or Microsoft
Excel 5.0.

1. **Begin at the home page of our site** (*Live from Earth and
Mars*, http://www-k12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/).

2. **Click the "Pathfinder" graphic** to get to the Mars
Pathfinder mission and data.

3. **Click "Mars Meteorological Data and Graphs**: Latest Pathfinder
and Viking."

4. **Scroll down to "Data Tables"** and click the link "Subset
of Pathfinder Temperatures, Sols 27." Wait for the data to be
transferred and loaded into a table.

5. **Peruse the data** for understanding and patterns. What do you
notice about temperatures over a day and at different heights?

6. **Click the "Back" button** to return to the previous
page.

7. **Click on the link "Data Interchange Format"** below
the "Subset..." link. (Note: you can click HERE
to download the pre-formatted data in one step)

8. **Accept the download by** clicking "Save" in the "Download
Dialog Box."

9. **Save the file** by clicking "Desktop" then clicking
"Save" in the "Save Dialog Box." You should now have
saved the file "temps.bin"

10. **Launch ClarisWorks.** In the "New Document Dialog Box"
click "Cancel."

11. **Load the data file by pulling down "File" to "Open..."**
In the dialogue box, click "Desktop," click the icon for your
computer's hard drive, and click "Open." Click the saved file
(temps.bin) and click "Open." ClarisWorks will import the pre-formatted
spreadsheet file.

12. **Save the file as a ClarisWorks document by pulling down "File"
to "Save As..."** giving the file a descriptive name (such as
"Mars Temperatures, Sols 2-7), and clicking "Save."

**Now we're ready for some data analysis.** Scroll the data columns
to get a feel for the range of values. Do you notice any patterns?

13. **Create empty columns to the left of each of the last two temperature
columns. **Highlight the second temperature column (E) throughout the
data range (cells 3 238). Pull down the "Calculate" menu
to "Insert Cells," click "Shift Cells Right," and click
"OK." If you get a warning about not having sufficient memory
to recalculate, click "OK." Repeat the procedure for column G
(cells 3 238). You now have empty columns before each of the last
two temperature data columns.

14. **Create X-value columns for each of the last two temperature columns.**
Copy the Decimal Sol column (C) by highlighting the data cells range (cells
3 238) and pulling down the "Edit" menu to "Copy."
Click in the first cell where the data is to be pasted (cell E3) and paste
the "Decimal Sol" data by pulling down the "Edit" menu
to "Paste." Repeat pasting "Decimal Sol" for the other
empty column (cell G3). The spreadsheet should now have "Decimal Sol"
data before each temperature data column.

15. **Save your changes** by pulling down under "File" to
"Save."

16. **Highlight the data you wish to graph** (such as C4 to H238)
by dragging from the first cell to the last one.

17. **Begin the graphing utility** by pulling down "Options"
to "Make Chart."

18. **Click "X-Y Scatter."** Click the "Axes"
button and input a descriptive term for each (such as "Temperatures,
°C for "Y" and "Martian Sol" for "X").
Click "Series" and pull down "Edit Series" to select
each series, change the "Point Size" to 2, and give each series
a unique symbol rather than "X" for each symbol). Click "OK."

19. **Enlarge your graph** by dragging one of the "handles"
in the corner of the graph. Examine the graph more closely by clicking on
the "zoom" icon in the lower-left corner of the window.

20. **Find the Martian diurnal (daily) cycle of temperature** by looking
at one of the temperature columns plotted against decimal sol. (No fair
just looking at sol number!) How would you describe a Martian diurnal cycle
to another person?

The *steepness* of the temperature curve provides information about
the rate at which the Martian atmosphere heats and cools. The steeper the
curve the more quickly the temperature changes. Examine the shape of the
temperature curves you plotted. Calculate the heating rate and the cooling
rates for the Martian atmosphere. Does Mars cool at the same rate as it
heats?

21. **Compare the diurnal cycle of temperature of these 6 sols with
one another. **Is there a sol-to-sol variation? Describe any variations
you see. What are some possible causes of these variations?

22. **Compare the temperatures recorded for the 3 different sensor heights**.
What patterns do you see over a day? What patterns do you see during the
night? Hypothesize about possible causes of these variations. Write your
hypothesis and explain it to another person.

23. **Print the graphs** you believe are particularly representative
of what you learned. Make some notes on the graphs that address the above
questions.

24. **Save the file** (with associated graph) by pulling down from
"File" to "Save."

Extensions: Try using the Analysis Tools under the Options pull-down
menu to analyze these data further. You can calculate daily average temperatures
and standard variations, correlations between temperatures at different
heights, or with time. You can analyze the variance in the temperature measurements,
or compute any number of interesting statistics. Forge on according to your
own interests and capabilities!

© 1998 *Live
from Earth and Mars*, Janice DeCosmo, and Rich Edgerton