project - project data along a line or great circle, generate a profile
       track, or translate coordinates.


       project [ infile ] -Fflags -Ccx/cy [ -Aazimuth ] [ -Dd|g ] [ -Ebx/by  ]
       [ -Gdist ] [ -H[nrec] ] [ -L[w][l_min/l_max] ] [ -M[flag] ] [ -N ] [ -Q
       ] [ -S ] [ -Tpx/py ] [ -V ] [ -Ww_min/w_max ] [ -: ] [  -bi[s][n]  ]  [
       -bo[s][n] ] [ -f[i|o]colinfo ]


       project reads arbitrary (x, y[, z]) data from standard input [or infile
       ] and writes to standard output any combination of (x, y, z, p,  q,  r,
       s),  where  (p, q) are the coordinates in the projection, (r, s) is the
       position in the (x, y) coordinate system of the point on the profile (q
       =  0  path)  closest  to  (x, y), and z is all remaining columns in the
       input (beyond the required x and y  columns).   Alternatively,  project
       may  be  used  to  generate  (r, s, p) triples at equal increments dist
       along a profile. In this case ( -G option), no input is read.   Projec-
       tions  are  defined in any (but only) one of three ways: (Definition 1)
       By a Center -C and an Azimuth  -A  in  degrees  clockwise  from  North.
       (Definition  2)  By  a Center -C and end point E of the projection path
       -E.  (Definition 3) By a Center -C and a roTation pole position -T.  To
       spherically  project data along a great circle path, an oblique coordi-
       nate system is created which has its equator along that path,  and  the
       zero meridian through the Center. Then the oblique longitude (p) corre-
       sponds to the distance from the Center along the great circle, and  the
       oblique  latitude  (q) corresponds to the distance perpendicular to the
       great circle path. When moving in the increasing (p) direction, (toward
       B  or  in the azimuth direction), the positive (q) direction is to your
       left.  If a Pole has been specified, then the positive (q) direction is
       toward the pole.
       To  specify  an  oblique projection, use the -T option to set the Pole.
       Then the equator of the projection is already  determined  and  the  -C
       option  is  used to locate the p = 0 meridian. The Center cx/cy will be
       taken as a point through which the p = 0 meridian passes. If you do not
       care  to  choose  a  particular point, use the South pole (ox = 0, oy =
       Data can be selectively windowed by using the -L and -W options. If  -W
       is  used, the projection Width is set to use only points with w_min < q
       < w_max. If -L is set, then the Length is set to use only those  points
       with  l_min  <  p < l_max. If the -E option has been used to define the
       projection, then -Lw may be selected to window the length of  the  pro-
       jection to exactly the span from O to B.
       Flat earth (Cartesian) coordinate transformations can also be made. Set
       -N and remember that azimuth is clockwise from North (the y axis),  NOT
       the  usual  cartesian theta, which is counterclockwise from the x axis.
       azimuth = 90 - theta.
       No assumptions are made regarding the units for x, y, r, s, p, q, dist,
       l_min,  l_max,  w_min, w_max.  If -Q is selected, map units are assumed
       and x, y, r, s must be in degrees and p, q, dist, l_min, l_max,  w_min,
       w_max will be in km.
       Calculations of specific great-circle distances or for back-azimuths or
       azimuths are better done using mapproject.
       project is CASE SENSITIVE. Use UPPER CASE for all  one-letter  designa-
       tors  which  begin  optional  arguments. Use lower case for the xyzpqrs
       letters in -flags.

       -C     cx/cy sets the origin of the projection, in Definition 1  or  2.
              If  Definition 3 is used (-T), then cx/cy are the coordinates of
              a point through which the oblique zero meridian (p =  0)  should


       infile name  of  ASCII  (or  binary,  see  -bi)  file(s) with 2 or more
              columns holding (x,y,[z]) data  values.   If  no  filenames  are
              given,  project will read from standard input.  If the -G option
              is selected, no input data are read.

       -F     Specify your desired output using any combination of xyzpqrs, in
              any order. Do not space between the letters. Use lower case. The
              output will be ASCII (or binary, see -bo) columns of values cor-
              responding  to xyzpqrs. If both input and output are using ASCII
              format then the z data are treated as textstring(s).  If the  -G
              option is selected, the output will be rsp.

       -A     azimuth defines the azimuth of the projection (Definition 1).

       -D     Set  the  location  of the Discontinuity in longitude (r coordi-
              nate). -Dd will place the discontinuity at the Dateline, (-180 <
              r  <  180);  -Dg  will  place  it  at  Greenwich, (0 < r < 360).
              Default usually falls at dateline due to atan2 calls.

       -E     bx/by defines the end point of the projection  path  (Definition

       -G     dist  Generate  mode.  No input is read. Create (r, s, p) output
              points every dist units of p. See -Q option.

       -H     Input file(s) has Header record(s). Number of header records can
              be  changed  by  editing  your  .gmtdefaults4 file. If used, GMT
              default is 1 header record. Use -Hi if only  input  data  should
              have  header  records  [Default will write out header records if
              the input data have them].

       -L     Length controls. Project only those points whose p coordinate is
              within  l_min < p < l_max.  If -E has been set, then you may use
              -Lw to stay within the distance from C to E.

       -M     Multiple segment file(s). Segments are separated  by  a  special
              record.   For  ASCII  files  the  first  character  must be flag
              [Default is ’>’].  For binary files all fields must be  NaN  and
              -bo[s]n must set the number of output columns explicitly.

       -N     Flat  earth.  Make  a Cartesian coordinate transformation in the
              plane. [Default uses spherical trigonometry.]

       -Q     Map type units, i.e., project assumes x, y, r, s are in  degrees
              while p, q, dist, l_min, l_max, w_min, w_max are in km. If -Q is
              not set, then all these are assumed to be in the same units.

       -S     Sort the output into increasing p order. Useful when  projecting
              random data into a sequential profile.

       -T     px/py  sets the position of the roTation pole of the projection.
              (Definition 3).

       -V     Selects verbose mode, which will send progress reports to stderr
              [Default runs "silently"].

       -W     Width  controls. Project only those points whose q coordinate is
              within w_min < q < w_max.

       -:     Toggles between  (longitude,latitude)  and  (latitude,longitude)
              input  and/or output. [Default is (longitude,latitude)].  Append
              i to select input only or o  to  select  output  only.  [Default
              affects both].

       -bi    Selects  binary input. Append s for single precision [Default is
              double].  Append n for the  number  of  columns  in  the  binary
              [Default is 2 input columns].

       -bo    Selects binary output. Append s for single precision [Default is
              double].  Append n for the  number  of  columns  in  the  binary

       -f     Special  formatting  of  input  and output columns (time or geo-
              graphical data) Specify i(nput) or  o(utput)  [Default  is  both
              input  and output].  Give one or more columns (or column ranges)
              separated by commas.  Append T (Absolute calendar time), t (time
              relative  to  chosen TIME_EPOCH), x (longitude), y (latitude), g
              (geographic coordinate), or f (floating point) to each column or
              column range item.


       To  generate  points  every  10km  along a great circle from 10N,50W to

       project -C-50/10 -E-10/30 -G10 -Q > great_circle_points.xyp

       (Note that great_circle_points.xyp could now be used as input for  grd-
       track, etc. ).

       To   project  the  shiptrack  gravity,  magnetics,  and  bathymetry  in
       c2610.xygmb along a great circle through an origin  at  30S,  30W,  the
       great  circle having an azimuth of N20W at the origin, keeping only the
       data from NE of the profile and within +/- 500 km of the origin, run:

       project c2610.xygmb -C-30/-30 -A-20 -W-10000/0  -L-500/500  -Fpz  -Q  >

       (Note in this example that -W-10000/0 is used to admit any value with a
       large negative q coordinate. This will take those points which  are  on
       our  right as we walk along the great circle path, or to the NE in this

       To make a Cartesian coordinate transformation of mydata.xy so that  the
       new  origin  is  at  5,3  and  the  new x axis (p) makes an angle of 20
       degrees with the old x axis, use:

       project mydata.xy -C5/3 -A70 -Fpq > mydata.pq

       To take data in the file pacific.lonlat and transform it  into  oblique
       coordinates  using  a pole from the hotspot reference frame and placing
       the oblique zero meridian (p = 0 line) through Tahiti, run:

       project pacific.lonlat -T-75/68 -C-149:26/-17:37 -Fpq > pacific.pq

       Suppose that pacific_topo.grd is a grdfile of bathymetry, and you  want
       to make a file of flowlines in the hotspot reference frame. If you run:

       grd2xyz pacific_topo.grd | project -T-75/68  -C0/-90  -Fxyq  |  xyz2grd
       -Retc -Ietc -Cflow.grd

       then  flow.grd is a file in the same area as pacific_topo.grd, but flow
       contains the latitudes about the pole of the projection.  You  now  can
       use  grdcontour on flow.grd to draw lines of constant oblique latitude,
       which are flow lines in the hotspot frame.

       If you have an arbitrarily rotation pole px/py and you  would  like  to
       draw  an  oblique  small circle on a map, you will first need to make a
       file with the oblique coordinates for the small  circle  (i.e.,  lon  =
       0-360, lat is constant), then create a file with two records: the north
       pole (0/90) and the origin (0/0), and find what their  oblique  coordi-
       nates  are  using your rotation pole. Now, use the projected North pole
       and origin coordinates as the rotation pole and  center,  respectively,
       and project your file as in the pacific example above. This gives coor-
       dinates for an oblique small circle.


       fitcircle(l), gmt(l), mapproject(l), grdproject(l)

GMT4.0                            1 Oct 2004                        PROJECT(l)

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